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The Parker Family

Part 1

According to the history of Chatham Co., North Carolina, some of the earliest settlers came into the area in the early to mid-1700s. By 1760, the Haw River Valley was very well settled and the Colonial Assembly voted to create Chatham County effective April 1, 1771.

There were many Parkers in the Chatham area during this early history. It's not clear which Parkers were related or might be our ancestors. Peter Parker took out a land grant in 1746. His home was just south of the Granville Line. In 1774, Richard Parker, a former Justice of the court, was voted to the Assembly.

Our earliest confirmed Parker ancestor was Josiah Parker who was born, according to some sources, on Aug. 31, 1812 in Chatham Co., N.C. Josiah's 1850 census record says he was born in Orange Co., N.C., but his 1860 record says Chatham Co. We know very little about Josiah's early life, but on Dec. 7, 1838 in Guilford Co., N.C., Josiah Parker and Jabez Hunt appeared before a clerk of the court to secure a bond of marriage pledging Josiah's commitment to marry Parthenia Hackney. It's presumed that the couple were married that day or soon thereafter. Josiah and Parthenia (Hackney) Parker had the following children:

Josiah Parker's 1840 census record shows him living with his wife and a son under age 5. It's not known what happened to that son since he does not appear in 1850 or 1860 census records. It's interesting to note that in the 1830 census, a Joseph Parker lives near a Joseph J. Hackney in Chatham Co., N.C. Joseph Parker has two sons in the 15 to 20 age range and Joseph J. Hackney has a daughter in that same age range. Given the proximity of these two families, it's possible these gentlemen were the fathers of Josiah Parker and Parthenia Hackney; however, more evidence will be needed to confirm this. Although the marriage bond was secured in Guilford Co., the 1830 census identifies no male Parker in the correct age range to be our Josiah and there are no Hackneys in Guilford Co. in 1830 or 1840.

According to the 1850 Census, Josiah and Parthenia Parker had three children. Note that Josiah Parker's first name is "Joseph" in the census record.

1850 Census - Southern Division, Guilford County [Census Record]
NameAgeSexProfessionReal Estate ValuePlace of BirthAttend SchoolRead/Write
Joseph Parker37MCarpenterOrange, N.C.
Parthenia Parker36FVirginiaNo
Eliza Parker10FGuilford, N.C.Yes
Leonidas Parker7MGuilford, N.C.Yes
Leander Parker4MGuilford, N.C.

By the 1860 census, the family had grown to six children and Josiah's name was correct.

1860 Census - North Division, Guilford County [Census Record]
NameAgeSexProfessionRealPersonalPlace of BirthAttend SchoolRead/Write
Josiah Parker48MCarpenter$65Chatham [N.C.]
Parthena Parker46FVirginiaNo
Eliza Parker18FGuilford [N.C.]Yes
Leonidas Parker16MLaborerGuilford [N.C.]Yes
Leander Parker11MGuilford [N.C.]Yes
Lisander Parker10FGuilford [N.C.]Yes
Permandes Parker7MGuilford [N.C.]Yes
Barnett Parker1MGuilford [N.C.]

Josiah and Leonidas likely served in a North Carolina regiment during the Civil War. A Leonidas Parker and a J. B. Parker served in the 33rd North Carolina Infantry Regiment. On one of fifteen surviving service records, J. B. Parker is said to be Josiah B. Parker. Josiah was in Company H and Leonidas in Company E. Both were conscripted into service on July 1, 1862; however, they were conscripted far from their homes, Josiah in Hertford County (one record says Forsyth County which is much closer to his home in Guilford County) and Leonidas in Anson County. It's not known how accurate these recruitment county designations were, particularly for conscripts. If these are our ancestors, then Josiah would have been 50 years old at the time of his conscription and Leonidas would have been 18. While Leonidas would have met the minimum age for conscription at the time, Josiah would have been 15 years above the maximum age of 35. The confederacy did raise the maximum conscription age throughout the war, however. Perhaps some recruiters bent the limits in order to meet their goals. We are pretty confident that Josiah and Leonidas died before 1870, so the fact that these two individuals died during the war lends some credence to the idea that they are our ancestors. Leonidas was killed at Chancellorsville in 1863 and Josiah died from one of many illnesses he contracted during the war including typhoid, rheumatism and smallpox. Josiah appears to have spent more time in the hospital than with his unit, something you might expect from a 50 to 53 year old farmer who did not volunteer for service. The final entry for Josiah is "absent - supposed [presumed?] to be dead" in early 1864. He was last paid in March 1863. We can imagine that these two individuals were our Josiah and Leonidas, but we cannot be certain.

By the time of the 1870 census, the family was much smaller. Parthenia's name was shortened to Parthia. Her age and place of birth were inaccurate. She would have been 55 or 56 years old and, according to prior and subsequent census records, she was born in Virginia. While Eliza married (James) Albert Hubbard on Sept. 6, 1870 (see marriage register), this doesn't explain her absence from the family's census record since it was supposed to reflect the family status as of June 1, 1870. Since she and James had two stepsons (ages 18 and 15) in the 1880 census, it can't be ruled out that Eliza was previously married. Her 1923 death certificate indicated she was the widow of Albert Hubbard. Her husband seems to have gone by both James and Albert over the years, as evidenced by various census records, his marriage record and his wife's death certificate. Permandes (best guess of spelling based on 1860 census record) was now listed as Peandus. In later records his name was generally some variation of Permandus (as it was spelled on his gravestone); however, his descendants believe his name was Phenandis while his 1878 marriage license indicated his name was Philander. Finally, Barney's age seems off by a year or two. All of these inconsistencies are understandable given that Parthenia and her sons could not read or write.

1870 Census - 1/2 of Deep River Township, Guilford County [Census Record]
NameAgeSexProfessionRealPersonalPlace of BirthAttend SchoolRead/Write
Parthia Parker48FKeeping HouseNorth CarolinaNo
Peandus Parker16MWork on farmNorth CarolinaNo
Barney Parker9MAt homeNorth Carolina

In 1871 at the age of 12, Barnett J. (Barney) Parker ran away from home. It was said that he ran away because of his bossy sisters. The 1870 census suggests he had no sisters living at home, so this may or may not be true. He is said to have worked on the railroad with his first job as a cook for a section gang.

Not much is known about those years between 1871 and 1888. How long he worked for the railroad is unknown and when he turned to farming is unknown. According to this marriage license, Barney married Roxanne Hull on Oct. 26, 1879 and the story is told that they had a son named Gurney, but there is no record of this. Some family members say that the child died at birth. Roxanne Hull Parker died in 1888. The 1880 census records indicate that Barney Parker and Roxanne Hull were living in Guilford County. They also show Parthenia Parker living alone.

1880 Census - Friendship Township, Guilford County [Census Record]
NameSexAgeRelationSingleMarriedProfessionReadWritePlace of Birth
Barnett ParkerM20LaborerNoNoNorth Carolina
Roxanne ParkerF19WifeNorth Carolina

1880 Census - Friendship Township, Guilford County [Census Record]
NameSexAgeRelationSingleWidowedProfessionReadWritePlace of Birth
Parthina ParkerF65Keeping HouseNoNoVirginia

We do not know where Barney and Roxanne Parker lived when Roxanne died. However, at some point after the 1880 census and possibly after 1888, Barney Parker moved to Claiborne Co., Tenn. where he married his second wife Louisa Jane Wagoner on May 31, 1891 (see marriage record). Louisa Jane Wagoner was the daughter of Richard Wagoner and Millicent Willis. She was born in March 1866 in either Kentucky (per 1880 and 1920 censuses) or Tennessee (per 1900 and 1910 censuses) and died in 1936. Here are the 1900, 1910 and 1920 census records for the Barney and Louisa Jane Parker family.

1900 Census - 3 Civil District, Claiborne County [Census Record]
NameRelationSexDate of BirthPlace of BirthProfessionReadWrite
Barney ParkerHeadMApril 1859North CarolinaFarm LaborerYesNo
Louisa ParkerWifeFMarch 1866TennesseeYesNo
James R[oscoe] ParkerSonMDecember 1895Tennessee
William B[ryan] ParkerSonMSeptember 1896Tennessee
Milton C.[Kasper] ParkerSonMMay 1898Tennessee
Roxie L. ParkerDaughterFDecember 1899Tennessee

By 1910, Barney and Louisa Jane had three additional children. Paralee is clearly written as the name of their five year old; however, this is very likely Carralee/Cary/Carrie who appears as Cary in the 1920 census.

1910 Census - Civil District 6, Claiborne County [Census Record]
NameRelationSexAgePlace of BirthProfessionReadWriteAttend School
Barney ParkerHeadM52North CarolinaFarmerYesYes
Luize ParkerwifeF44TennesseeNoneYesNo
Rosco ParkersonM15Tennesseefarm laborerYesYesYes
Bryan ParkersonM13Tennesseefarm laborerYesYesYes
Milton ParkersonM11Tennesseefarm laborerNoNoYes
Roxie ParkerdaughterF8TennesseeNoneNo
Stella ParkerdaughterF4TennesseeNone
Didymous [Dit] ParkersonM2TennesseeNone
Paralee [Carralee] ParkerdaughterF5TennesseeNone

By 1920, only the three youngest children were still living with Barney and Louisa Jane.

1920 Census - part of 3rd District, Campbell County [Census Record]
NameRelationSexAgeAttend SchoolReadWritePlace of BirthProfessionIndustry
Barney ParkerHeadM60NoNoNorth CarolinaFarmLaborer
Louisa ParkerWifeF53NoNoKentucky
Cary [Carrie] ParkerDaughterF16NoYesYesTennessee
Steller [Stella] ParkerDaughterF14NoYesYesTennessee
Deit [Dit] ParkerSonM12YesYesYesTennessee

Barnett and Louisa Parker
Barnett and Louisa Jane (Wagoner) Parker

Children of the marriage of Barney and Louisa Jane Parker were:

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